Chemical Profiling and Anti-Microbial Activity of Frankincense (Boswellia sacra) Derived Heavy oil
Faruck Lukmanul Hakkim*, Syed Sikkandar Hassan, Jamal Al-Sabahi, Mohammed Al-Buloshi
Full Length Research Paper
Biology Division, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Applied Sciences, A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Oman
College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Accepted 21 September, 2016
Frankincense considered as holy plant in Oman and its resin commonly used for fragrance purposes. In addition, frankincense resin has many ailments curing history and it is observed by local people. Essential oil extracted from frankincense resin either by hydro-distillation (HD) or microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MHD) method has numerous biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-analgesic etc. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chemical profiling of this essential oil revealed that the major component is α-pinene and it is associated with other triterpenes. HD and MHD widely used to extract the essential oil from frankincense but it requires sophisticated set up to achieve efficient extraction. It is well known that soxhlet extraction procedure is very common to obtain high yield of phytochemicals from the plant or microbial sources and it is very simple, feasible and efficient extraction method. In this study for the first time we define the soxhlet extraction based protocol to extract heavy triterpenes from frankincense and we tested them for antimicrobial activity against different pathogens (E.coli, klebsiella, staphylococcus and bacillus). In addition chemical profiling of heavy oil done by GC-MS. Heavy oil extracted from frankincense exhibited considerable anti-microbial activity against the organism tested. Our data revealed that α-pinene is major content of this heavy oil about 61.5% followed by α-amyrin (20.6%), β-amyrin (8.1%), β-phellandrene (1.47%) and camphene (1.04%). Adapting simple and efficient extraction method is always warranted to obtain high yield of phytochemicals. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on heavy oil extraction from Oman’s frankincense by soxhlet extraction method.
Keywords: Frankincense; Heavy Oil; Soxhlet Extraction; Triterpene; Oman.